DEAR DR. ROACH: I was diagnosed with COPD a year and a half ago. I seem to be unable to get answers from my pulmonary doctor, as he is always busy. How fast does COPD progress? I’m 78 years old, I’m in reasonably good health, and I exercise regularly. I have chronic bronchitis with a slight amount of emphysema. I had been coughing a little during the day, had mucus in the morning and coughed at night for two to three hours after bedtime — to the extent of having to use a rescue inhaler to settle down and get back to sleep. After he put me on Trelegy, all of those symptoms disappeared, and I feel perfectly normal except for shortness of breath.
My other question is, what is the life expectancy of a person diagnosed with COPD? I’ve read answers to this all over the map, from two or three years after diagnosis to 15 or more years. I would presume that it depends on other factors such as physical condition, exercise, weight, etc. I would like some kind of guideline for someone in my condition. — T.J.
ANSWER: There are two major types of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: chronic bronchitis, where the primary problem is productive cough; and emphysema, which is destruction of the small airways. Shortness of breath is a common feature of all types of COPD. The most prevalent cause is smoking. I can’t answer your questions on rate of progression and overall prognosis without much more information, but it is certainly a good sign that many of your symptoms are well-controlled on treatment. The single biggest factor in rate of progression of COPD is whether you are a smoker, but not being able to exercise, being male and being very underweight are additional risk factors for faster progression. In someone with COPD, the decline over months to years can cause symptoms to occur first with exercise, and then when at rest. Once people have severe symptoms at rest, the prognosis becomes quite poor.
No medication can reverse lung damage. Inhaled steroids reduce inflammation and can slow progression somewhat. Inhaled bronchodilators open airways and make breathing easier. Inhaled anticholinergics reduce secretions. Trelegy contains all of these medicines and is appropriate for people with severe COPD or those who do not have good symptom control with a less intensive regimen.
DEAR DR. ROACH: My family recommended yoni pearls for cleansing the vagina and for prevention and treatment of vaginal bacterial infection. Are these necessary? — J.H.
ANSWER: A healthy vagina does not need any cleaning, and any kind of herb or douche inserted in the vagina is much more likely to cause problems than prevent them, so I strongly recommend against them. Bacterial vaginosis is a condition where the normal, healthy bacteria in the vagina are outnumbered by other bacteria, such as Gardnerella and others. This outnumbering changes the vaginal pH and may cause symptoms ranging from abnormal discharge to unpleasant odor. Bacterial vaginosis is normally treated with antibiotics when symptoms are bothersome. Women who suspect bacterial vaginosis should have an examination to confirm the diagnosis.
Dr. Roach regrets that he is unable to answer individual questions, but will incorporate them in the column whenever possible. Readers may email questions to ToYourGoodHealth@med.cornell.edu.
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